Figure 4 exemplifies our analyses in the case of structural CW pr

Figure 4 exemplifies our analyses in the case of structural CW proteins. From our experiments it was concluded that lethal concentrations of melittin act quicker on yeast than PAF26 under our assay conditions, since a shorter Selleck Repotrectinib exposure to melittin (2 h) was sufficient to kill cells while a much longer time of treatment (24 h) was needed for the PAF26 effect to be noticeable (compare Figure 4A and 4B, respectively). A similar observation was found previously AR-13324 in the fungus P. digitatum [46], since melittin induced changes of mycelium quicker

than PAF26. Consequently, all our experiments were conducted at least at these two exposure times and the Additional File 5 reflects the overall data obtained. A significative but minor effect on susceptibility to peptides was observed among several of the CW-related genes analyzed (i.e., only one five-fold CFU dilution selleck inhibitor difference). Despite the well-known severe lethality of Δecm33, Δssd1 and Δpir2 in the presence of SDS or CFW, only a modest outcome of higher sensitivity to peptides was found (Figure 4 and Additional File 5). Function redundancy, for instance among PIR genes, could be partially responsible for this result. Thus, we assayed the triple mutant Δpir1-3 in a different genetic background (S. cerevisiae RAY3A cells) [48] but did not observe a significant effect

(Additional File 6), contrary to the higher sensitivity of the same strain to the antifungal plant protein osmotin [56]. In addition, the deletion of SSD1 in RAY3A resulted in a slight increase in sensitivity to peptides, particularly PAF26, as occurred with the corresponding BY4741 derivative. In some experiments such

Adenylyl cyclase as the one shown in Figure 4, a slight increase in resistance was observed for Δsed1 and Δdse2, in response to PAF26 treatment. Figure 4 Analysis of sensitivity to peptides and to CW disturbing compounds of S. cerevisiae deletion mutants in CW-related genes. Data on sensitivity of the single gene deletion strains Δsed1, Δssd1, Δpir2, Δdse2, Δecm33, and the corresponding parental strain BY4741 are shown. (A) and (B) show results after treatment of serial 5-fold dilutions of exponentially growing cells with each peptide for 2 hours (Panel A) or 24 hours (Panel B) and subsequent plating onto YPD peptide-free plates. (C) and (D) show growth of serial dilutions of the same deletion strains on YPD plates containing SDS (Panel C) or CFW (Panel D). Deletion strains from all the well characterized MAPK signalling pathways [50, 52] were selected from at least at three points of each pathway, with an emphasis on signalling related to CW integrity and construction and osmoregulation (see Additional File 7). Some of the mutants showed a minor increase of resistance to PAF26.

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