AMPAR synaptic strength is also associated with a shift toward inward rectification of synaptic currents and increased expression of GluR1, but not GluR2, subunits, suggesting augmented membrane incorporation of GluR1-contaming, GluR2-lacking AMPARs. To test Cilengitide manufacturer this hypothesis, the postsynaptic incorporation of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits in CA1 neurons after FZP withdrawal was examined by postembedding immunogold quantitative electron microscopy. The percentage of GluR1 positively labeled stratum radiatum (SR) synapses was significantly increased in FZP-withdrawn rats (88.2% +/- 2.2%) compared with controls (74.4% +/- 1.9%). In addition, GluR1 immunogold density was significantly find more increased by 30% in SR synapses in CA1 neurons from FZP-withdrawn rats compared with control rats (FZP: 14.1 +/- 0.3 gold particles/mu m; CON: 10.8 +/- 0.4 gold particles/mu m). In contrast, GluR2 immunogold density was not significantly different between groups. Taken together with recent functional data from our laboratory, the current study suggests that the enhanced glutamatergic strength at CA1 neuron synapses during benzodiazepine withdrawal is mediated by increased incorporation of GluR1-containing AMPARs. Mechanisms underlying
synaptic plasticity in this model of drug dependence are therefore fundamentally similar to those that operate during activity-dependent plasticity. J. Comp. Neurol. 511:832-846, 2008. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“In this study we
investigated whether polymorphisms in the folate pathway influenced the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or the survival rate of the patients. For this we selected Ruboxistaurin mouse and genotyped 67 SNPs in 15 genes in the folate pathway in 543 children with ALL and 529 controls. The results were evaluated by gender adjusted logistic regression and by the Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA) methods. Bayesian structure based odds ratios for the relevant variables and interactions were also calculated. Altogether 9 SNPs in 8 genes were associated with altered susceptibility to ALL. After correction for multiple testing, two associations remained significant. The genotype distribution of the MTHFD1 rs1076991 differed significantly between the ALL and control population. Analyzing the subtypes of the disease the GG genotype increased only the risk of B-cell ALL (p = 3.52 x 10(-4); OR = 2.00). The GG genotype of the rs3776455 SNP in the MTRR gene was associated with a significantly reduced risk to ALL (p = 1.21 x 10(-3); OR = 0.55), which resulted mainly from the reduced risk to B-cell and hyperdiploid-ALL. The TC genotype of the rs9909104 SNP in the SHMT1 gene was associated with a lower survival rate comparing it to the TT genotype (80.2% vs. 88.8%; p = 0.01).