Considering the predominantly myopathic presentation of GSD III,

Considering the predominantly myopathic presentation of GSD III, a clinician would likely question why the defect of an enzyme that acts hand-in-hand with myophosphorylase should cause weakness rather than cramps and myoglobinuria, the clinical hallmarks

of McArdle disease. One reason for this discrepancy may be that in McArdle disease glycogen cannot be metabolized at all, whereas in GSD III the peripheral chains of normal glycogen can be utilized. However, this explanation postulates that the intact glycogenosynthetic pathway allows some turnover between normal glycogen and PLD, which is not unreasonable. Another explanation for the fixed and mostly distal weakness of patients with GSD III (26) is the simultaneous involvement of muscle #Selleckchem ABT-263 keyword# and nerve, as documented both electrophysiologically and by nerve biopsy (27, 28). GSD IV (branching enzyme deficiency, Andersen disease) The glycogen branching enzyme Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (GBE) is a single polypeptide encoded by one gene (GBE1). GBE deficiency results in the deposit of an amylopectin-like polysaccharide that has fewer

branching points and longer outer chains than normal glycogen and is known as polyglucosan. Polyglucosan is periodate/Schiff (PAS)-positive and only partially digested by diastase, which makes Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical it easily recognizable in various tissues and offers an important clue to the correct diagnosis. It is gratifying to see that in the just published 22nd edition of Rudolph’s Pediatrics, the neuromuscular presentation of GSD IV is given as much space as the hepatic form (29), which dominated previous textbook descriptions. In fact, the neuromuscular presentation has been underdiagnosed, judging

from the flurry of recent papers. As recognized in a seminal paper of 2004 (30), there are two main infantile presentations. The first is a perinatal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorder known as “fetal akinesia deformation sequence” or FADS, characterized by multiple congenital contractures (arthrogryposis multiplex congenita), hydrops fetalis, pulmonary hypoplasia, craniofacial abnormalities, intrauterine retarded growth (IURG), abnormal amniotic fluid volume, and perinatal death. The second, labeled “congenital,” should probably Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical be called “fatal infantile,” as it presents at CYTH4 or soon after birth with hypotonia, muscle wasting, neuronal involvement, inconsistent cardiomyopathy, and early death. Detailed neuropathology in a girl who died at 3 months showed PAS-positive polyglucosan inclusions in neurons of basal ganglia and thalamus, oculomotor and pontine nuclei, and in periaqueductal neurons (31). In the medulla, polyglucosan deposits were noted in the hypoglossal nucleus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the nucleus ambiguus. Similar findings were reported in two more infants (32, 33). The motor neurons of the spinal cord are also severely affected (32), explaining how one of the patients we studied was initially diagnosed as spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMA I) until mutations in the SMN1 gene were ruled out (34).

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