Collectively, these data indicated that the rumen of domesticated

Collectively, these data indicated that the rumen of domesticated Sika deer harbored unique TPCA-1 bacterial populations for the fermentation of plant biomass and concentrate diet. Small molecule library in vitro Interestingly, in both clone libraries, none of the sequences were 100% identical. Rather, most clones were in the range of 83-98% identify to known species in both libraries. These results suggested that the rumen bacteria of domesticated Sika deer were not previously characterized and that these clones related to Prevotella spp. in the rumen represented

new species. This agrees with previous findings suggesting that most of the bacterial species in rumen of other cervids (96% for Hokkaido Sika deer and 100% for Svalbard reindeer) are unknown [26, 40]. Despite the diets and geographic location are important factors affecting bacterial diversity in the rumen, however, the presence of these unknown or unidentified species may be the result of co-evolution between microbial communities Sapanisertib order and the host. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the bacterial diversity in domesticated Sika deer fed corn stalks differed from the domesticated Sika deer consuming oak leaves (Figure 5), indicating forage affected the relative abundance and composition of the bacteria. Moreover, the difference in the Prevotella species between the

two groups was very apparent (Table 3). For instance, the results of clone library showed that the proportion of P. ruminicola-like clones (27%) was abundant in the CS group comparing with those in the OL group, and sequences analysis of PCR-DGGE also indicated that P. ruminicola was only presented in CS group. Interestingly, Prevotella species in the rumen could contribute to cell wall degradation through synergistic interactions with species of cellulolytic bacteria [41]. Therefore, considering the GNA12 relatively high fiber content (about 36%) in corn stalks,

these P. ruminicola-like clones in the CS group may play a role in the degradation of cellulose. This explanation is partly supported by recent metagenomics data from the Svalbard reindeer rumen microbiome, where the presence of polysaccharide utilizing glycoside hydrolase and other carbohydrate-active enzyme families target various polysaccharides including cellulose, xylan and pectin [18]. In the OL group, the distribution of P. shahii-like clones (16.5%), P. veroralis-like clones (23.8%) and P. salivae-like clones (12.3%) were several times higher in the OL library than in the CS library, and several bands in the PCR-DGGE analysis showed sequence similarities to P. salivae (Table 3). Previous study reported that P. ruminicola may tolerate condensed tannins [22]. Considering the genetic diversity of Prevotella spp. [27, 42], it is assumed that the tolerance to tannins of domestic Sika deer may be related to the abundance of Prevotella spp. in the OL group. In addition, we found two bands (O-3 and O-18) were identified as St.

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