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Authors’ contributions TZ participated in the design of study, performance of the experiments and the writing of manuscript. YD, TL and YW participated in the performance of the experiments. WL participated in the design of the study. RZ and HC participated in the design of study and the writing of manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease or Paratuberculosis, a chronic enteritis that AC220 in vitro mainly affects ruminants, causing a general debilitation of the infected organisms . The disease is characterized by several phases that include, besides the initial phase of infection, a subclinical asymptomatic stage dominated by a Th1 type immune response, which usually is not able to eliminate the infection due to bacterial mechanisms of evasion , and then gradually replaced by a Th2 humoral immune response .