Baseline clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic data, indic

Baseline clinical, biochemical, and echocardiographic data, indices of dialysis adequacy, and peritoneal transport rate were reviewed retrospectively. The clinical outcome was the occurrence of a CVE.

Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 28 (range 6 – 70) months. A CVE Smoothened Agonist concentration was observed in 33 patients

(11.3%). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative incidences of CVEs were 4.0%, 13.7%, and 27.5%, respectively. Although multiple variables were correlated with the prevalence of a CVE in the univariate analysis, hs-CRP, PP, and comorbidity remained significant after adjustment: hs-CRP: odds ratio (OR) 4.09 (1.53 – 10.95), p = 0.005; PP: OR 2.79 (1.26 – 6.17), p = 0.012. PP and hs-CRP, which were not intercorrelated U0126 solubility dmso in our data, combined adversely to increase the incidence of CVEs. The incidence of CVEs increased with the number of risk factors, which included high hs-CRP, high PP, and the presence of comorbidity (no risk factor, 0%; 1 risk factor, 1.5%; 2 risk factors, 30.8%; 3 risk factors, 53.9%).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that measurements of hs-CRP and PP at the start of PD may be helpful in predicting

the development of CVEs in the course of treatment with PD.”
“Staphylococcus aureus peritonitis is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Since reports of the course and treatment of S. aureus peritonitis have generally been limited to small, single-center studies, the aim of the current investigation was to examine the frequency, predictors, treatment, and clinical outcomes of this condition in all 4675 patients receiving Epigenetic Reader Do inhibitor PD in Australia between 1 October 2003

and 31 December 2006. 3594 episodes of peritonitis occurred in 1984 patients and 503 (14%) episodes of S. aureus peritonitis occurred in 355 (8%) individuals. 273 (77%) patients experienced 1 episode of S. aureus peritonitis, 52 (15%) experienced 2 episodes, 19 (5%) experienced 3 episodes, and 11 (3%) experienced 4 or more episodes. The predominant antibiotics used as initial empiric therapy were vancomycin (61%) and cephazolin (31%). Once S. aureus was isolated and identified, the prescription of vancomycin did not appreciably change for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) peritonitis (59%) and increased for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) peritonitis (84%). S. aureus peritonitis was associated with a higher rate of relapse than non-S. aureus peritonitis (20% vs 13%, p < 0.001) but comparable rates of hospitalization (67% vs 70%, p = 0.2), catheter removal (23% vs 21%, p = 0.4), hemodialysis transfer (18% vs 18%, p = 0.6), and death (2.2% vs 2.3%, p = 0.9). MRSA peritonitis was independently predictive of an increased risk of permanent hemodialysis transfer [odds ratio (OR) 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17 - 3.82] and tended to be associated with an increased risk of hospitalization (OR 2.00, 95% CI 0.96 – 4.19).

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