As such, we could not document the long-term health outcome for t

As such, we could not document the long-term health outcome for the infected hatchling(s). A 50-μL sample of the hydrolyzed blood with bacteria was added to 10 mL of Luria–Bertani (LB) broth, incubated at 37 °C overnight on a rocker plate. Bacteria were then subcultured on LB agar plates at 37 °C. Ten colonies were isolated from these plates for subsequent assays of hemolytic activity on human and sheep blood agar plates. Human blood agar plates (5% blood) were prepared by dissolving

Sunitinib 19 g trypticase soy agar in 475 mL of ddH2O in a microwave oven, cooled to 50 °C and then mixing in 25 mL of freshly drawn human blood from a student volunteer (in accord with our IRB Committee) before pouring into sterile Petri dishes. The sheep blood agar plates were purchased from All 10 colonies of the sea turtle bacteria were found to be hemolytic. The 16S RNA genes of three of these were amplified and partially sequenced (methods described below), all yielding essentially identical sequences. It would appear that the hatchling was infected with a single bacterial species. One clone, 2-04LB-Cl-5, was then selected for complete sequencing

as described below. The chemical and growth characteristics of the bacteria were kindly assessed by the US Centers for Disease Control, Washington, DC. To detect any soluble toxins with hemolytic activity, bacteria were grown overnight in an LB broth and 1.5 mL was centrifuged find more at 18 500 g in a microcentrifuge for 4 min. The bacterial supernatant was then filtered through a 0.45-μm filter twice to ensure the removal of all bacteria. Removal

was confirmed through the absence of bacterial growth after incubation of a filtered sample overnight in LB media. Freshly drawn human blood was then diluted 1 : 1 with a sterile isotonic saline and 200 μL was incubated with 10, 50, 100 and 200 μL of the bacterial supernatant or equivalent volumes Progesterone of LB broth. Samples were observed microscopically for lysis after 1, 4, 24 and 48 h. DNA was isolated from bacterial pellets obtained from 10 mL cultures. Bacteria were lysed in 1 mL of DNAzol and DNA isolated according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Invitrogen). The virtually complete rRNA gene sequence was established by sequencing multiple PCR samples run in the forward and reverse directions (four to six runs in each direction) with two sets of previously described universal primer pairs [P0mod (forward) and PC3 (reverse) gene location 18–32 and 787–806, respectively; P3 (forward) and PC5 (reverse) gene location 787–806 and 1487–1507, respectively] (Wilson et al., 1990).

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