A noticeable promotion of activity was found for all sulphated oxides, which was Apoptosis inhibitor associated with an increase of the total acidity and more particularly with a higher concentration of sites with a moderate/strong
acid strength. Also the generation of new Bronsted acid sites was found. Interestingly, sulphation did not lead to a significant loss of surface area (except for sulphated ceria) and redox properties linked to the Ce4+/Ce3+ cycle were not apparently affected. Sulphated Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 and Ce0.15Zr0.85O2 samples showed the highest catalytic activity. Hence, the temperatures for DCE removal (in terms of T-50 and T-90) were considerably lowered by 80 degrees C (T-50) and 120 degrees C (T-90). This behaviour evidenced that selleck kinase inhibitor sulphation was an effective tool to improve
the performance of Ce/Zr mixed oxides for chlorinated VOC abatement. In contrast, the activity of the samples modified with nitric acid hardly showed any variation. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The rise of resistant pathogens and chronic infections tolerant to antibiotics presents an unmet need for novel antimicrobial compounds. Identifying broad-spectrum leads is challenging due to the effective penetration barrier of Gram-negative bacteria, formed by an outer membrane restricting amphipathic compounds, and multidrug resistance (MDR) pumps. In chronic infections, pathogens are shielded from the immune system by biofilms or host cells, and dormant persisters tolerant to antibiotics are responsible for recalcitrance to chemotherapy with conventional antibiotics. We reasoned that the dual
need for broad-spectrum and sterilizing compounds could be met by developing prodrugs that are activated by bacterium-specific enzymes and that these generally reactive compounds could kill persisters and accumulate over time due to irreversible binding to targets. We report the development of a screen for prodrugs, based on identifying compounds that nonspecifically inhibit reduction of the viability dye alamarBlue, and then eliminate generally toxic compounds by testing for cytotoxicity. A large pilot of 55,000 compounds against Escherichia coli produced 20 hits, 3 of which were further examined. One compound, ADC111, is an analog of a known nitrofuran prodrug nitrofurantoin, and its activity depends on the presence of Etomoxir activating enzymes nitroreductases. ADC112 is an analog of another known antimicrobial tilbroquinol with unknown mechanism of action, and ADC113 does not belong to an approved class. All three compounds had a good spectrum and showed good to excellent activity against persister cells in biofilm and stationary cultures. These results suggest that screening for overlooked prodrugs may present a viable platform for antimicrobial discovery.”
“A retained permanent mandibular first molar caused arrested development and a defect of the alveolar bone in a 16-year-old girl.