7 h and 56 6 mL/min, respectively This study utilized an ultrafi

7 h and 56.6 mL/min, respectively. This study utilized an ultrafiltration rate of 2 L/h and a dialysate rate of 1–2 L/h. In contrast to the studies listed above, other studies have found considerably lower clearance see more rates than our study. Armendariz and colleagues presented a case report of a patient undergoing CVVH and found that total body clearance of amikacin was 10.5 mL/min and CVVH clearance was 10.11 mL/min [15]. This approximated the hemofiltration rate to be 10 mL/min. They found an elimination constant of 0.023 h−1, which corresponds to a t ½ of 29.7 h. This study found clearance rates from CRRT to be similar to those reported for patients

in renal failure without the use of dialysis. The median clearance rate of amikacin in our study (36.7 mL/min) was drastically higher than that reported by Armendariz and colleagues. Of note, the dialysate flow rates described in the current report are approximately twice those reported by Armendariz and colleagues [15]. Given the high sieving coefficient of 0.93 for amikacin, it is conceivable that the flow rates during CRRT would dictate the amount of drug removal [26]. This premise is supported by other studies that utilized higher dialysate or ultrafiltration rates with subsequent findings 8-Bromo-cAMP purchase of higher rates of amikacin clearance. Roberts and

colleagues reported data from five patients on CVVH, with average flow rates of 19.2 mL/min (1.2 L/h) and found through a mean hemofiltration clearance rate of 16.4 mL/min [18]. Taken together, it appears that across studies, the overall dialytic dose may affect amikacin clearance. This is consistent with the findings of our current study, which suggest that dialytic dose correlates with amikacin clearance. However, there are still many other factors that would ultimately determine the PK BAY 63-2521 mouse profile of amikacin. These may include inter-patient variability in non-dialytic measures, such as volume status, non-renal intrinsic clearance, the age of the filter, and interruptions to CVVHD. Of interest, a study by Cotera and colleagues that evaluated amikacin clearance

in five patients with acute oliguric renal failure undergoing CVVHD found that the amikacin clearance rates were only 3.57 and 4.18 mL/min with 1 and 2 L/h dialysate rates, respectively [16]. Even though the 2 L/h dialysate rate was only slightly lower than that reported in the current study, the authors noted drastically lower clearance rates than in our study. This could potentially be explained by the type of hemodialyzer membrane utilized. Notably, all the previous studies discussed and the current study utilized synthetic hemodialyzer membranes composed of either acrylonitrile or polysulfone. In contrast, the study by Cotera and colleagues [16] utilized a cuprofen (cellulose) dialysis membrane. A decrease in drug clearance with the use of cellulose dialysis membranes compared to polysulfone has been well documented [27–30].

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