5 mg kg(-1)) to soil standards was achieved over a 3-year period

5 mg kg(-1)) to soil standards was achieved over a 3-year period in three phases: initial remediation, basic bioremediation and inoculation with a biopreparation.

Fourteen non-pathogenic indigenous bacteria species belonging mainly to the Actinomycetales were identified and shown to be able to degrade 63-75% of nC(9)-nC(20), 36-51% of nC(21)-nC(36), 36% of BTEX and 20% of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Addition of five non-pathogenic fungi species to the bacterial consortium allowed degradation of 69-89% of nC(9)-nC(20), 47-80% of nC(21)-nC(36), 76% of BTEX, and 68% of PAHs. Microtox, Ostacodtoxkit, Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor Phytotoxkit and Ames tests indicated that changes in toxicity were not connected with the decrease in TPH contents, possibly due to the formation of toxic indirect metabolites during bioremediation. No toxicity was found in the soil after bioremediation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Differing extents of tendon retraction are found in full-thickness rotator cuff tears. The pathophysiologic context of tendon degeneration and the extent of tendon retraction are unclear. Tendon integrity depends on the extracellular matrix, which is regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). It is unknown which enzymes play a role in tendon degeneration. The hypotheses are that (1) the expression of MMPs 1, 3, and 9 is altered

in the torn rotator cuff when compared with healthy tendon samples; and (2) that there is a relationship screening assay between MMP expression and the extent of tendon retraction in the torn cuff.\n\nRotator cuff tendon samples of 33 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears (Bateman grade III) were harvested during reconstructive surgery. Samples were dehydrated and paraffin-embedded. Immunohistologic determination of MMP 1, 3, and 9 expression was performed by staining sample slices with MMP antibody. The extent of tendon retraction was determined intraoperatively according to Patte’s classification and patients were assigned to 4 groups (control group, and by tendon retraction

grade Patte I-III). The control group consisted of six healthy tendon samples.\n\nExpression of MMPs 1 and 9 was significantly higher in torn cuff samples than in healthy tendons whereas Ganetespib solubility dmso MMP 3 expression was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). MMP 9 expression significantly increased with rising extent of tendon retraction in the torn cuff (P < 0.05). No significant association was found between expression of MMPs 1 and 3 and the rising extent of tendon retraction by Patte’s classification.\n\nElevated expression of MMPs 1 and 9 as well as decreased MMP 3 expression can be detected in torn rotator cuff tendon tissue. There is a significant association between the extent of tendon retraction and MMP 9 expression. The results of this study give evidence that early surgical treatment of small and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears is required.

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