05, Bonferroni correction to correct for multiple testing) Real-

05, Bonferroni correction to correct for multiple testing). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) analysis To validate the selected miRNA expression levels in ES samples compared to control samples, RT-PCR analysis was applied. The miScript Reverse Transcription

Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) served for reverse transcription of RNA, according to manufacturer’s guidelines. QRT-PCR was performed on a Light-cycler, software v.3.5 (Roche Applied Science, Mannheim, Germany) by the SYBR Green miScript PCR system (Qiagen). Each reaction was performed in a 20-μl volume with 5 ng template cDNA. The primers for amplification of selected miRNAs and snRNA U6 were purchased from the Qiagen. The experiments were performed in duplicate for each RNA sample, and every run included a control ATM Kinase Inhibitor research buy without template. The U6 primer assay (Qiagen) served as an endogenous control for Capmatinib normalization. The relative quantification (RQ) for each miRNA, compared with U6 was calculated using equation 2-ΔΔCt. Relationship between miRNA and CGH data We investigated whether any association existed between miRNA expression changes and gain/loss of genomic regions. We GDC-0941 purchase mapped each miRNA to its chromosomal band location, which was retrieved from the Ensembl, using the biomaRt package, and the mirBase database. For each miRNA, we counted the number of xenograft samples (out of 14) in which there was loss, gain, or no change in copy number for the corresponding

chromosomal band. Possible associations were determined by counting the number of samples showing miRNA over-expressed/genomic gain and miRNA under-expressed/genomic loss. We also counted the number of control samples (out of 2) in which the miRNA was detected. Predicted targets of differentially expressed miRNAs After having acquired the Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II differentially expressed miRNAs, we used the miRBase target prediction database (http://​microrna.​sanger.​ac.​uk),

TargetScan (http://​www.​targetscan.​org), and miRanda (http://​www.​microRNA.​org) for evaluation of the predicted mRNA targets. The list of predicted mRNA targets was screened for the genes known to be functionally relevant in ES and predicted at least by one of the algorithms. Results Copy number alterations in xenografts By the aCGH analysis, xenograft passages displayed a total of 28 copy number changes, of which approximately half appeared in every passage of each series whilst the other half were present in some of the passages of each series (Table 2, and 3). All these changes were evident in passage 0. Moreover, the clustering analysis of aCGH profiles for each cytogenetic location indicated that the aCGH profiles of the passages 0 as primary tumors and the rest of the xenograft passages were similar (Figure 1). Copy number losses (65%) were more frequent than gains (35%). The most frequent copy number losses were seen at chromosomal regions 9p21.3 and 16q; these were observed in four (63%) and two (20%) series of xenografts passages, respectively.

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