7), IL-6 (0 9), IL-4 (4 5), IL-1ra (8 3), MIP-1α (2 9), and MCP-1

7), IL-6 (0.9), IL-4 (4.5), IL-1ra (8.3), MIP-1α (2.9), and MCP-1 (1.9). Leukocytes subsets were characterized find more in ChL and PL using the BD Multitest IMK kit following the manufacturer’s protocol (BD Biosciences, CA, USA; Cat. No. 340504): total leukocytes/CD45+(clone 2D1-HLe-1), NK cells/CD16+ (clone B73.1), CD56+ (clone NCAM 16.2), B cells/CD19+ (clone SJ25C1), and monocytes/macrophages/CD14+ (clone HCD14), and subsets of T cells/CD3+ (clone SK7), CD8+ (clone SK1), and CD4+ (clone SK3). Leukocyte subsets were analyzed within the CD45+ gate using a FACSCalibur flow cytometer, and data analysis was performed by BD Cell Quest software (BD Biosciences, CA, USA). Gelatinase activity in culture media

was determined by SDS–PAGE containing 1% gelatin under non-denaturing conditions as described previously.[21] Culture supernatants (0.5 μg of total protein) were loaded into each well. Enzymatic activity standards for MMP-2 and MMP-9 were included using conditioned media on the U-937 promyelocyte cell line.[24] Specific quantification of active and total MMP-9 in culture supernatants of choriodecidual and peripheral leukocytes was carried out using the Biotrak MMP-9 Activity Assay System (General Electric Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK) following the protocol suggested by the manufacturer. To measure the total MMP-9 content, bound enzyme was activated with

p-aminophenylmercuric acetate. The MI-503 concentration of total and active MMP-9 in the samples is reported as nanograms (ng) of MMP-9 per μg of protein. Protein was measured by Bradford’s method.[25] For each variable, descriptive

statistics (mean, standard deviation, standard error, median, and range) were obtained, and the data distribution was tested for normality using the Kolmogorov–Smirnoff and Shapiro–Wilk tests. Student’s t-test was Progesterone performed to compare leukocytes subsets between ChL and PL. A P value ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Two-way analysis of variance using repeated measurement model was used to compare cytokines/chemokines concentrations in the culture media from ChL and PL. Differences with P ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were carried out using spss, version 20 software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). The two-step method, using a density gradient followed by selection by plastic adherence, yielded in 1,33,000 ± 3,500 choriodecidual leukocytes per cm[2] of fetal membranes (n = 18). According to the flow cytometry data, this method also allowed enriching and purifying (≥80%) choriodecidual leukocytes. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that T lymphocytes and natural killer cells were the major subsets in the ChL and PL preparations (Table 1). Choriodecidual leukocytes showed a distinct secretion pattern of cytokines and chemokines when compared with intervillous placental blood leukocytes (Fig. 1).

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