We similarly compared the female proportion (F/(F + M), where F = female counts and M = male counts) for impala, topi and giraffe computed by pooling all individuals of the same sex over all age classes and the 2003 and 2004 surveys, separately for each area. Results Comparative changes in herbivore density The details of differences in wildlife densities between the reserve and the APR-246 concentration ranches were complex and varied with species and season, but some consistent overall patterns were nevertheless evident. Small sized herbivores Most small herbivores CP673451 molecular weight were consistently
more abundant in the ranches than in the reserve in both seasons (Fig. 2a, e). Interestingly, warthog did not conform to this pattern and showed a preference for the reserve in the dry season but for the ranches in the wet season (Fig. 2d). https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk2126458.html Sheep and goats were more abundant in the ranches than in the reserve, and their numbers increased noticeably during 2000–2010 relative to earlier years (Fig. 2b; Tables S1, S2). Fig. 2 Comparative changes
in densities (number/km2) of small pure grazers and mixed gazer/browsers, a Thomson’s gazelle, b sheep and goats, c impala, d warthog and, e Grant’s gazelle between the Mara Reserve (light bars) and the adjoining Koyiaki pastoral ranch Akt inhibitor (dark bars) during the dry and wet seasons based on the DRSRS aerial surveys from 1977 to 2010. Vertical lines show the 95% pointwise confidence limits whereas stars indicate that the mean densities differed significantly between the reserve and Koyiaki Medium sized herbivores
Most medium-sized herbivores moved seasonally between the reserve and the ranches (Fig. 3a, f). However, hartebeest and waterbuck had slightly higher densities in the reserve during both seasons, but more especially in the wet season (Fig. 3c, d; Tables S1, S2). Topi, wildebeest and zebra had slightly higher densities in the reserve in the dry season when the migrants are present but somewhat higher densities in the ranches in the wet season (Fig. 3a, b, f; Tables S1, S2). More specifically, the resident wildebeest had lower densities in the ranches than in the reserve in the dry season but higher densities in the ranches than in the reserve in the wet season (Fig. 3b). Cattle were more abundant in the ranches than in the reserve in the dry season but more occurred in the reserve in the dry than in the wet season, and more recently (2000–2010) than in earlier years 1970–1999 (Fig. 3e; Tables S1, S2). Fig.